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No one knows when the stirrup was first invented, but it was a boon to any military that used it.
Even the simplest of stirrups, a leather loop, let mounted soldiers ride longer distances and stay mounted on their horses during battle.
Seemingly the only way to keep them out was to put the Himalayas between you and them.
And many historians believe their power stemmed from an incredibly simple technological innovation: the stirrup.
Along with sturdy leather boots and some changes of clothes, she was buried with a saddle and metal stirrups described as in such good condition that they could still be used today.
The stirrups are one continuous thick piece of metal with an open loop for a saddle strap on the top and a wide, flattened, and slightly rounded foot rest.
When they met their opposition, their cavalry galloped forward with wild agility, shooting arrows continuously, presenting a terrifying united front.
By 1241 they were knocking at Vienna's door, and they remained the terror of eastern Europe for the rest of the century.
The Mongols claimed the largest consolidated land empire in history.
As they got within a few yards of the other army, the charging horsemen's unity broke.
They turned and galloped away as quickly as they'd come.