Radiochemical dating definition chemistry
The energy produced by radioactivity has important military and industrial applications...... the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemistry of radioisotopes, elements, and substances, the laws governing the physicochemical behavior of this radioactive matter, the chemistry of nuclear transformations, and the physicochemical processes that accompany these transformations.
radioactive isotopeor radioisotope,natural or artificially created isotope of a chemical element having an unstable nucleus that decays, emitting alpha, beta, or gamma rays until stability is reached...... Radiochemistry, because of the topics, methods, and objects of its investigations, can be subdivided into general radio-chemistry, the chemistry of nuclear transformations, the chemistry of radioactive elements, and applied radiochemistry.
For example, by feeding plants carbon dioxide that contains the radioisotope carbon-14 and by monitoring the carbon compounds through the plants' life cycle, the intermediate stages of the photosynthetic process can be determined. Most natural radioisotopes are daughter isotopes, that is, products of the decay of Th.
The concentrations of some of these isotopes in the equiponderant ores U and Th per 1 gram of pure parent isotope are presented in Table 1 on page 421.
Radioisotopes are also obtained artificially by irradiating various substances with nuclear particles. In many cases, hundreds, tens, or even just a few atoms of radioisotopes are present in many other atoms.
For organic materials, the comparison is between the current ratio of a radioactive isotope to a stable isotope of the same element and the known ratio of the two isotopes in living organisms.
Radiocarbon dating is one such type of radiometric dating.
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tracer,an identifiable substance used to follow the course of a physical, chemical, or biological process. General radiochemistry studies the physicochemical regularities in the behavior of radioisotopes and elements.